PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data to develop the effective nursing intervention for the parent who have children with cancer by acquiring the deeper understanding of the mothers' adjustment of caring for their children with cancer. METHODS: The ethnographic research method was used to find out the pattern of caring adjustment in Korean cultural context. Informants consisted of 12 mothers who were caring for their children with cancer. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, participant observation, and telephone interviews by maximum variation purposive sampling. The data were analyzed following Spradley's methodology. RESULTS: The mothers' caring adjustment were organized into one cultural theme, four categories, and twelve properties. The cultural theme was 'standing alone as a mother with sin'. The four categories were 'blaming for falling illness', 'overcoming with motherhood', 'desperate struggling with side effects', and 'establishing new network as a dependent'. CONCLUSION: For the mothers who are caring children with cancer, the supportive nursing intervention based on the deeper understanding of mothers' pattern of caring adjustment for their children and centered on facilitating effective adjustment in each cultural context especially from the very early stage of caring in the hospital ward is extremely required.