PURPOSE: This study was done to identify and compare factors associated with intention to receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine between male and female undergraduate students. METHODS: In the fall of 2010, 479 students responded to self-administered questionnaires about their intention to receive HPV vaccine, HPV knowledges, HPV related involvements and optimistic bias, subject's characteristics including opinion about HPV vaccine. Mann-Whitney U test, uni-variate and multi-variate logistic regression were used for data analysis with SPSS/WIN. RESULTS: Intention to receive vaccine were 22.0% of men and 25.0% of women. There were significantly different in HPV knowledge (Z=-2.74, p=.006), optimistic bias (Z=-4.60, p<.001), vaccine is necessary for women (Z=-4,30, p<.001), vaccine is necessary for men (Z=-4.37, p<.001), vaccine is necessary if only symptom exist (Z=-4.52, p<.001), but there were not different in intention to receive vaccine, involvement between men and women. Concern about vaccine safety (OR=3.19, 95% CI 1.63~6.23) was determinant of intention to receive HPV vaccine for men. CONCLUSION: This study showed gender differences in HPV knowledge, HPV related optimistic bias and opinion about HPV vaccine, which would be assessed and well managed in tailored HPV education for enhancing HPV vaccine acceptance.