PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze periodic screening behaviors for breast cancer and factors affecting the screening behaviors among hospital nurses. METHODS: A total of 461 nurses were recruited from 15 hospitals located in two southern areas of Korea. The Champion's Health Beliefs Model Scale-Korean version and a structured study questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were collected during July and August 2008. RESULTS: Nurses who performed periodic mammography accounted for 15.6% of the total, while 22.8% performed periodic breast self-examination (BSE). Among married nurses, the rates of periodic mammography and BSE were significantly different by age, menopausal status, delivery experience, family history of breast cancer, and experiences of cervical cancer screening. Significant factors affecting periodic mammography were family history of breast cancer, experiences of cervical cancer screening, age above 40, and performance of periodic BSE. For health beliefs, levels of severity, confidentiality and barrier were significant factors for periodic BSE. CONCLUSION: Nurses, who are role models for health promoting behaviors, did not adequately performing periodic BSE and mammography. A health promotion program for breast cancer designed for hospital nurses is needed to improve performance rates for periodic screening behaviors for breast cancer.