PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastric cancer patients who received gastrectomies, and to compare the rates of H.pylori infection detected by serological test and that of histopathological test, and to evaluate its clinical meaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty two patients were selected from those who underwent gastrectomies at the Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, from March 1997 to May 1997. The control group consisted of healthy 103 persons visited the center for health promotion in Samsung Medical Center. In both groups, we quantitatively checked serum level of IgG anti H. pylori antibody titer by ELISA using GAP IgG test kit (BioRad, USA) for the serological test, and we microscopically examined the surgical specimen stained by Warthin-Starry silver staining method for the histopathological test. RESULTS: The seropositive rate of H. pylori in the patients' group was 71.2% (37/52), and the control group was 65.0% (67/103). The difference between two groups was statistically significant. However the histopathological study showed that the overall detection rate of H. pylori was 61.5% (32/52) in the patients' group and 61.2% (63/103) in the control group; and this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We could confirm that H.pylori infection rate in the gastric cancer resected patients was statistically higher than in the normal healthy persons even in small population. And the detection method for the H. pylori infection by serological test was presumed to be better than that of histopathological test using surgical specimen. Further study for the larger population by well-organized multicenters will be needed.