PURPOSE: To identify the perception and practices of kangaroo care in nurses and doctors working in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in Korea. METHODS: One hundred forty-nine nurses and nineteen doctors working in the NICU from six university hospitals completed a survey questionnaire. RESULTS: Most agreed that Kangaroo care promoted attachment and parental confidence as well as physical health of the infant. However, nurses and doctors showed a negative perception in providing kangaroo care for premature infants under 1,000 grams or within several hours after birth. Major barriers for kangaroo care were worrying about extubation and safety problems of premature infants. Married or senior nurses showed a more positive perception than others. Also nurses who worked in hospitals where kangaroo care was provided had a lower barrier perception than other nurses. CONCLUSION: Nurses and doctors working in NICU worried about adverse effects of kangaroo care even though they perceived positive effects. Standard education programs and manuals should be developed before dissemination of kangaroo care in Korea.