PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify differences in physiological.psychological.environmental.behavioral characteristics between obese and control children participating in a health camp and to identify the factors related to childhood obesity. METHODS: Two hundred eighty seven children aged 6 to 12 years were recruited from a health camp for elementary students in D city, Korea. Data collection was done on November 28 and 29, 2009. Anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and self-report surveys were conducted. Chi-square test, independent t-test, ANCOVA, and multiple logistic regression were performed using PASW statistics 18.0. RESULTS: Obese children had adverse conditions for both physiological and psychological characteristics. In terms of environmental and behavioral characteristics, high maternal BMI and more than two hours of TV watching were significantly associated with high risk of childhood obesity (OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.02-1.21; OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.23-3.41). CONCLUSION: Through a multi-factorial approach, the current study identified the differences between obese and control children participating in a health camp and risk factors of childhood obesity. These findings provide preliminary data and perspectives on intervention research for prevention and management of childhood obesity.