PURPOSE: This study was done to build and test a theoretical model that could be used to explain and predict parenting behavior of mothers with preschool children. METHODS: The participants were 298 mothers with preschool children. Data were analyzed using the SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) programs. RESULTS: Parenting stress showed a direct effect on parenting satisfaction. Parenting efficacy showed a direct effect on parenting behavior. Parenting stress showed an indirect effect on parenting behavior. Parenting efficacy was found to mediate the relationship between parenting stress and parenting behavior. Income and mother's perfectionism had an impact on parenting behavior. CONCLUSION: The outcomes of this study indicate the necessity of designing intervention programs that emphasize increasing parenting efficacy in order to increase positive parenting behavior.