PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to build and test a theoretical model that could be used to explain and predict health promoting behavior in school children in Korea. METHOD: Participants for this study included a total of 423 students, all of whom were enrolled in either the 5th or 6th grade of one of 3 elementary schools in Seoul and Gyunggi Province, Korea. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the collection period was from September 22 to 30, 2006. The data were analyzed using the SAS Program and Lisrel Windows Program. The instruments for this study were developed to include a health promotion behavior scale, self-esteem scale, self-efficacy scale, perceived benefit and barriers scale, social support scale, health status scale, academic stress scale, and previous health-related behavior scale. RESULTS: The hypothetical model for this study consisted of 3 intrinsic and 6 extrinsic variables, and 27 pathways. As a result of hypotheses testing, as many as 11 pathways were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The development of health promotion programs based on the factors found in this study will be very effective in promoting the health of Korea's school children.