PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of self-efficacy promoting program on self-efficacy, self-care, and anxiety in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. METHOD: A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group pre and post design was used. Subjects were 52 cancer patients who received chemotherapy in a hospital. Twenty-six patients were assigned to the experimental and the control groups, respectively. For the experimental group, the CD image for fifteen minutes and two consultations for about ten minutes each were applied. For the control group, ordinary hospital care was applied. The data was collected before and 2 weeks after chemotherapy. RESULT: The scores of self-efficacy and self-care of the experimental group was higher than those of the control group while the state of anxiety of the experimental group was not lower than that of the control group at posttest. CONCLUSION: The self-efficacy promoting program about prevention of infection and hemorrhage increased cancer patients' self-efficacy and self-care but did not decrease anxiety. Further study is needed to find other factors to decrease anxiety and nurses need to consider the concept of self-efficacy in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy when they plan to increase cancer patients' self-care.