Magnetic resonance imaging plays a pivotal role in noninvasive evaluation of pediatric brain tumors before and after treatments. These imaging techniques have continuously evolved and now they are incorporated into imaging protocols dedicated for brain tumors. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional imaging, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, and susceptibility-weighted imaging. In order to maximize their clinical usefulness, fundamental concept and clinical utility of each technique should be recognized not only by radiologists, but also by referring physicians. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult brain tumors in various aspects, magnetic resonance imaging protocols should be appropriately tailored to pediatric brain tumors. Another recent trend in magnetic resonance imaging is three-dimensional data acquisition that can allow high-solution isotropic images and shorter examination time. In this article, current magnetic resonance imaging techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors are reviewed.