PURPOSE: An isolated popliteal artery lesion is relatively rare, with different clinical characteristics to those of atherosclerosis. There are several diseases found at the artery around the knee joint. The cases of knee joint artery experienced by the author studied, and the clinical characteristics evaluated. METHOD: Between 2001 and 2005, 8 patients underwent surgical treatment for isolated popliteal disease at our hospital. Of these 5 cases were for popliteal entrapment syndrome, one case for popliteal adventitial cystic disease, and 2 cases for an isolated popliteal artery aneurysm. The two cases of popliteal entrapment syndrome had bilateral involvement; therefore, a total of 10 legs were treated surgically. We analysed the clinical characteristics and surgical results from the patients' medical records. RESULT: The popliteal entrapment syndrome patients were younger than those with the other diseases. The main symptom of popliteal entrapment syndrome and adventitial cystic disease was calf claudication, which occurred insidiously after physical abuse, but the symptom of the popliteal artery aneurysm was due to acute venous congestion or arterial occlusion. Most of the cases were diagnosed with a CT angiogram. One gastrocnemius myomectomy and 6 popliteal interposition bypasses using the autogenous saphenous vein, were performed in the cases of popliteal entrapment syndrome. An arterial reconstruction, with an open cystectomy, was performed in the case of the adventitial cystic disease. Popliteal interposition bypass, with isolation of the popliteal aneurysm, was performed in the popliteal aneurysm. During the mean follow up period of 10.8+/-10 months, the arterial flows to the involved feet were patent in all cases. CONCLUSION: Isolated popliteal artery disease is not usually suspected but easy to diagnose with recently developed imaging study. If diagnosed properly and treated timely, the result of the surgical treatment of isolated popliteal artery disease can be excellent.