STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to demonstrate surgical strategies for successful minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Although many studies have reported the benefits and disadvantages of minimally invasive TLIF, few have described surgical strategies to improve the success rate or to reduce complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for studies reporting the clinical and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive TLIF, and analyzed the optimal indications, technical pitfalls, and tips for successful surgical outcomes. RESULTS: The ideal candidate for minimally invasive TLIF is a patient with single or 2-level low-grade adult degenerative or isthmic spondylolisthesis. Incomplete decompression, dura tearing, nerve root injury, and implant-related complications were found to be the most commonly reported adverse events, especially in the early periods of a surgeon's experience. Precise positioning for skin incision and tube insertion, complete neural decompression, proper interbody preparation for bone graft and cage insertion, and the correct placement of percutaneous pedicle screws are critical strategies for successful surgical outcomes. Fully understanding the surgical pitfalls and tips described in this review is also important to avoid potential complications. CONCLUSIONS: It is imperative not only to carry out a comprehensive preoperative evaluation and proper patient selection, but also to perform meticulous surgical procedures with thoughtful considerations of potential pitfalls, in order to improve the success rate and to reduce the complications of minimally invasive TLIF.