STUDY DESIGN: A review of related literatures of diagnosis and treatment of spinal tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to discuss treatment strategies by understanding of emerging problems related to spinal tuberculosis. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: Owing to modern diagnostic modalities, development of prevention and chemotherapy, the incidences of tuberculosis infection including spinal tuberculosishave been decreasing. Moreover, these medical these improvements of medical and surgical treatments the improvement of surgical techniques for spinal tuberculosis reduced the incidence of kyphosis or neurologic complications such as Pott's paralysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of related literatures. RESULTS: Recently,the occurrence of multi-drug resistant strain, an increasing number of opportunistic infections and an atypical presentation in spinal tuberculosis are emerging as new challenges. CONCLUSIONS: An appropriate diagnosis and surgical interventions are our obligation as clinicians dealing with this unique infectious disease to minimize the complications for the treatment of spinal tuberculosis.