STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective and preliminary study. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to evaluate the characteristics of recompression of vertebral bodies without trauma after balloon kyphoplasty (KP) for treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW: KP has been used for fracture reduction, maintenance of vertebral height and relief of pain in VCF. Despite of numerous satisfactory results, several factors have been noted to affect the clinical results of KP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with recompression of vertebral bodies without trauma after KP were reviewed. All the patients were female and their mean age was 75.9+/-4.1 years old. The follow-up period was 17.2+/-8.5 months. The compression rates of the operated vertebral bodies (CR) and the kyphotic angles (KA) were checked by using plain roentgenograms at the initial, postoperative and last follow-up periods. The preoperative MRIs were also reviewed. The clinical results were checked using the VAS. RESULTS: The CRs at the initial, postoperative and last follow-up periods were 33.7+/-14.8%, 13.4+/-7.6% and, 26.9+/- 9.9%, respectively. The KAs were 19.2+/-7.2degrees , 14.8+/-6.2degrees and 20.5+/-7.4degrees for each period, respectively. Statistically, the CR and KA at the initial-postoperative period and at the postoperative-last follow-up period showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Intervertebral clefts were found in all the cases on MRI. Normal bones superior or inferior to cement were also seen in all the cases after KP. The VAS scores were 8.5+/-0.5, 2.3+/-0.5 and 3.0+/-0.6, retrospectively, and there were significant differences between each periods (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Recompression of a vertebral body without trauma after KP for treating VCF was observed in the cases with a intervertebral cleft seen on MRI and normal bones superior or inferior to the cement were observed after KP. The causes of recompression may be subsequent compression or resorption of the remaining vertebral body.