STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical features and functional outcomes of patients having undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty, with bone cement, for an osteoporotic compression fracture. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW: The clinical result of percutaneous vertebroplasty is good and satisfactory. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a useful treatment for an osteoporotic compression fracture of the vertebral body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 83 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty, with bone cement, between January 2000 and June 2001, 47 patients(79 vertebral bodies), followed-up for more than 3 years were selected; the mean follow-up period was 42.6 months. We compared the postoperative clinical and radiological findings immediately and at the 1, 2 and 3-year follow-ups. The clinical outcomes were graded as excellent, good, fair, low and poor. The height of vertebral body, the leakage of bone cement and adjacent vertebral body fracture were also assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using Chisquared and Student t-tests. RESULTS: The immediate postoperative clinical results were either excellent or good in 45 patients(95.7%). The last follow-up showed excellent or good results in 42 patients(89.4%). There was no statistically significance in connection with the follow-up duration (P>0.05). The heights of the vertebral bodies on plain radiographs were 78.0% immediately postoperation, and 76.5% at the last follow-ups, with no statistically significant difference in the heights of the vertebral bodies on follow-up. Cement leakage was noted in 29(35.4%) out of the 79 vertebral bodies. In 4 patients(7 vertebrae), an additional compression fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies was found CONCLUSION: Percutaneous vertebroplasty with bone cement is considered as a safe and promising technique for an osteoporotic compression fracture of the vertebral body.