OBJECTIVE: Human sperm nucleus DNA damage may negatively affect pregnancy outcome, and the spermatozoa of infertile men have more DNA damage than that of fertile men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microsurgical varicocelectomy on human sperm nucleus DNA integrity. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 18 subfertile male patients who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy at our hospital from April 2006 to April 2007. Varicocele was diagnosed by physical examination and Doppler ultrasound. Standard semen analysis was performed in 18 patients before and 4 months after microsurgical varicoceletcomy using a computer assisted semen analyzer. Sperm nucleus DNA integrity was assessed by a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). RESULTS: No recurrence of varicocele was observed after 4 months later. The DNA fragmentation index improved after varicocelectomy compared with pre-operatively (19.3 versus 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). Semen analysis parameters (total count, concentration, motile sperm, viability, strict morphology) increased after varicocelectomy, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that microsurgical varicocelectomy can improve semen analysis parameters and human sperm nucleus DNA integrity in infertile men with varicocele.