The placenta, which is a temporary organ derived from the fetus during pregnancy, is critical to support fetus development via optimal regulation between mother and fetus. Trophoblast as a major cell population of the placenta is one of the earliest to differentiate and shows an extensive proliferation or/and differentiation up to the formation of the placenta. The role of the trophoblast show dynamic changes from early embryo implantation to placentation during pregnancy. Implantation of the blastocyst into the endometrium of the maternal uterus is mediated by invasion of the differentiated trophoblast (e.g. syncytiotrophoblast) from the trophectoderm. During pregnancy, the unique role of the trophoblast is to invasion, eroding, and metastasizing in the placenta as well as to ensure appropriate bidirectional nutrient or waste flow required for growth and maturation of the embryo. The dysfunction of the trophoblast during pregnancy can result in several gynecological diseases including preeclampsia and congenital malformation in neonatal medicine. Therefore, trophoblasts act as a conclusive factor in placental and fetal development. This brief review outlines the classification of trophoblast and its function in the placenta during pregnancy. Also, we introduce the latest research in trophoblast for implantation and the placenta development, and the application potential of trophoblast for infertility and obstetrical diseases.