PURPOSE: After the introduction of concept of osteointegration, dental implantology have been successful procedure in the dental field. Recently, it has shown successful results when used to restore single tooth missing. Considering the difference in bone quality of the mandible and maxilla, and the increased occlusal force in the posterior region, the success rates in each region may be different. In this study, success rates of single implants placed in the mandibular first and second molar areas were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were patients (284 patients, 308 implants) who had been operated with single implant installation from 2002 to 2009 in seven dental clinics in Daegu city. One hundred sixty eight implants were placed in the mandibular 1st molar and 140 implants were placed in the mandibular 2nd molar. They were analyzed according to implant site, age, sex, length and diameter. RESULTS: The survival rates of single implant of this study were 97.6% in the mandibular 1st molar and 92.9% in the mandibular 2nd molar. In the mandibular 1st molar, 4 implants were failed. In the mandibular, 2nd molar, 10 implants were failed. CONCLUSION: The restoration of the mandibular 1st molar using single implant was found to be clinically acceptable treatment and showed higher survival rate than mandibular 2nd molar single implant. Single implant in mandibular 2nd molar needs careful consideration of poor bone quality, risk of overloading and anatomical structure of the mandible.