PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare in vivo biofilm formation on titanium surface and zirconia surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For biofilm formation on titanium and zirconia in oral cavity, after producing oral appliances using acrylic resin and orthodontic wire tailored to 9 subjects, we made titanium and zirconia specimens (6 mm x 6 mm x 2 mm), fixed them on oral appliances and maintained them in oral cavity of test subjects for 24 and 72 hours. Test subjects who have equipped two pairs of specimens maintained oral hygiene not by using toothpaste but only by tooth brushing. After 24 and 72 hours, we removed and observed specimens through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: Biofilm formation showed large deviation depending on individuals. For formation comparison between titanium and zirconia for 24 hours, zirconia showed less biofilm formation than titanium. Biofilm formation showed large deviation depending on individuals. As for formation comparison between zirconia and titanium, the degree of biofilm formation in zirconia was less than it was in titanium after a lapse of 24 hours. The result of biofilm formation in 72 hours trial show that zirconia has an inclination to formate less biofilm than it was in titanium. CONCLUSION: Based on the above results, we can conclude that early biofilm formation in oral cavity was influenced by difference of abutment materials.