PURPOSE: This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4,982 males and 5,664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due to the multiplicity of FCOD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesions examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. CONCLUSION: COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women.