PURPOSE: To compare the proliferation potential of the epithelial cells between unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), dentigerous cyst (DC), and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and to correlate this proliferation potential with the radiographic features of these three pathoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of PCNA, Ki-67, and cytokeratin as a proliferation marker were assessed for 15 cases of UA, 15 cases of DC, and 15 cases of OKC. The degree of immunochemical expression of three proliferation markers were correlated with the radiographic features, especially cortical expansion (negative and positive) and shape of border (scalloped and round). RESULTS: Using PCNA and Ki-67, OKC showed the highest proliferation potential and UA the lowest. Statistically significant differences were found between the OKC and the UA (p< 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was present according to the radiographic features in all pathoses. Using cytokeratin, there was no significant differences of proliferation potential among three pathoses. CONCLUSIONS: OKC epithelium has the most intense proliferation potential, followed by the dentigeous cyst and then unicystic ameloblastoma. There is no significant relation between the radiographic features and the proliferation potential of epithelium of these three pathoses.