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J Bacteriol Virol. 2017 Mar;47(1):1-13. English. Review. https://doi.org/10.4167/jbv.2017.47.1.1
Lee HJ , Kim YB , Shin Y .
Department of Bio-industrial Technologies, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.
Korean Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul, Korea. yungoh@kangwon.ac.kr
Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) was spread to both eastward and westward from Uganda where the virus was identified approximately in 1947 by a group of arbovirus researchers. In 2015, ZIKV reached Americas with major outbreaks in Brazil. Most countries with mosquito transmitted ZIKV infection are located in tropical and subtropical areas, where ZIKV is endemic with other flaviviruses, including JEV, dengue and yellow fever virus. Approximately 40 countries in Central and South Americas and territories in South Pacific Islands and South East Asia show autochthonous ZIKV endemics. American lineage of ZIKV is known significantly to be mutated in susceptibility to host and in pathogenicity from Asian and Asian lineages approximately since 2014. Early and specific identification of ZIKV infection is very important for the effective management of patients. First of all, optimal collection of specimens for the laboratory diagnosis is required for both nucleic acid testing (NAT) and serological tests. Specimens for NAT tests and serological tests should be determined by the available laboratory resources, work-flow in each laboratory and the geographic areas of specimen collected in addition to days after showing symptoms. Testing strategy for specific differentiation among flaviviruses will vary depending on the prevalence of viruses known to be circulating in the area where the patients were exposed. NAT will be employed for the patients presenting with onset of symptoms less than 7 days. Advanced diagnostic technologies should be continuously developed for the increase of specificity and sensitivity of ZIKV diagnosis.

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