Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The host immune pressure against hepatitis viruses during the chronic infection has led to mutations in their coding genes, which could play a pivotal role in the clinical outcomes of chronic patients. Our recent molecular epidemiologic studies regarding the HBV precore/core (preC/C) regions and HCV nonstructural 5B (NS5B) protein suggest the presence of distinct CD4 T cell immune pressure against HBV and HCV in Korean chronic patients. However, induced HBV and HCV mutations seem to exert an opposite effect on Korean chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, respectively. On the basis of two of our recent papers, we focused in this review on the relationships between the mutation patterns of HBV preC/C and HCV NS5B, which were presumed to be caused by distinct CD4 T cell pressure in the Korean population and their effect on the clinical outcomes and liver disease progression of CHB and CHC patients.