Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi infection and one of main causes of febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been estimated that one billion people are at risk and one million new cases arise each year in the endemic region. Despite of aggressive attempts to develop a prophylactic vaccine against scrub typhus during last several decades, all approaches have failed to generate long lasting immunity. In addition, little is known about the immunological pathogenesis of scrub typhus. In this review, we summarized recent findings of cellular and systemic interaction of O. tsutsugamushi with mammalian host, especially focusing on the molecular basis of intracellular invasion and immunological changes observed during the bacterial infection.