PURPOSE: Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease have increased in Korea. Some studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEAS) may play an important role in the pathogenesis or prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, insufficient data are available for Korean subjects, and the results of the available studies are controversial. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between DHEAS and cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 621 men who visited Health Promotion Center at the National University Hospital in Pusan from March 2001 to June 2002 and checked their plasma DHEAS concentration, body mass index, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and body fat percent. We assessed the effect of plasma DHEAS concentration on these factors. RESULTS: Plasma DHEAS concentration decreased with age. The mean concentration was 210.6microgram/dl. The values were positively correlated with body mass index, body fat percent, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure(p<0.05). Serum triglyceride correlated positively with serum DHEAS concentration(r=0.0924; p<0.05), and increasing HDL-cholesterol was related to higher serum DHEAS after adjustment for age and body mass index(beta= 0.060; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the plasma DHEAS concentration can impact HDL-cholesterol, which has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, other studies show different results, and most such studies are cross-sectional. Large well-controlled studies are necessary to prove any effect of plasma DHEAS concentration on cardiovascular disease risk factors.