The authors investigated the distribution of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype in blood donors with positive for anti-HCV (n=34), health check-up examiness with positive for anti-HCV (n=29), and in patients with various chronic liver disases positive for anti-HCV (n=63) in Pusan, Korea. HCV genotype was determined by using the molecular typing method through the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR) with four type specific primers. Among 116 anti-HCV positive study subjects, 66.4% were positive HCV RNA by RT-PCR. The major HCV genotype was type II (31.9%) and it was followed by type III (27.6%). Two cases were type IV (1.7%). Double infection with two different HCV genotypes (mixed type) was found in three cases (2.6%). Three cases (2.6%) were not determined by the four type specific primers, it may have different subtype. Type II was more prevalent than type III in the blood donors and health check-up examinees, but the reverse was true in the chronic liver disease patients including hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Type II was more prevalent than type III among the anti-HCV positive subjects with risk factors such as acupuncture history, surgical operation history, and trans-fusion history. In contrast type III was more prevalent than type II among the subjects without the above risk factors. It is supposed that the pathogenicity of different kind of HCV genotype might be different. The results of this study suggest that the type II and type III may be the major CV genotype in Korea. The differences of HCV genotype distribution between the study groups support that the clinical significance according to the HCV genotype may be different.