PURPOSE: This study is performed to determine the effects of titanium cap with various sizes of pores on bone formation during guided bone regeneration (GBR). METHODS: Calvaria from 10 adult male rabbits were chosen as the recipient sites. A trephine bur with a diameter of 10 mm was used to form one round groove on each side of sagittal suture of the cranium, and a round bur with a diameter of 1.5 mm was used to form 6 small holes on the inner circles of round grooves to induce bleeding. In the control group, bone graft was not conducted, and closed titanium cap was fixed in the round groove. Bone graft was not performed in groups 1 and 2, but fixed on titanium caps with 0.2 mm, and 0.5 mm sized pores, respectively. For groups 3, 4, and 5, a synthetic bone graft material (beta-tricalcium phosphate, Cerasorb(R), Germany) was transplanted, and titanium caps without pore, with 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm sized pore were fixed, respectively. The animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after, and clinical, radiographical, and histomorphometrical evaluation of bone regeneration was performed. RESULTS: In all groups, there were no clinical signs of infection, inflammation or wound dehiscence. Radiographic evaluation revealed well-defined semi-circular radiopacity inside the titanium cap of groups 3, 4, and 5. Histologically, the inner surface of the hemisphere was evenly lined with newly formed bone tissue, as well as grafted bone material in the group 3. In groups 4 and 5, the insertion of connective tissue was observed along the inner surface. However, the overall surface area between the grafts with different holes yielded no statistical significance in the histomorphometrical evaluation. CONCLUSION: Although the total area of newly formed bone showed no significant difference, excellent bone formation tendency was observed histologically when closed caps were used with bone graft was accompanied.