PURPOSE: The study was performed to compare patients with anatomical variations in facial asymmetry with patients in the normal range using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to take the preoperative condition into consideration in the case of a sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). METHODS: The study was conducted on 46 adult patients composed of 2 subdivided groups, an asymmetry group (n=26) and a symmetry group (n=20). The asymmetry group was divided between patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH, n=8) and hemimandibular elongation (HE, n=18). Using cross-sectional computed tomography images, the thickness of cancelleous bone in the buccal area of the mandible, thickness of buccal cortex in the buccal aspect of the mandible, thickness of cancellous bone in the inferior aspect of the mandible, thickness of buccal cortex in the inferior aspect of the mandible, and cross-sectional surface area of the mandible were measured. RESULTS: In the asymmetry group, the cross-sectional area of the mandible including the inferior alveolar nerve positioned on the affected side was significantly different from the symmetry group. Thickness of cancelleous bone in the buccal aspect of the mandible, thickness of cancelleous bone in the inferior aspect of the mandible, and cross-sectional surface area of the mandible in the affected site of hemimandibular hyperplasia was significantly smaller than in the symmetry group. CONCLUSION: The inferior alveolar nerve runs lower and in a more buccal direction and shows a smaller cross-sectional surface of the mandible in the hemimandibular hyperplasia patients with asymmetry.