Aurora kinases represent a novel family of serine/threonine kinases crucial for cell cycle control. Aurora-2 kinase is mainly involved in centrosome function, mitotic entry, and spindle assembly. Aurora-2 kinase overexpression causes centrosome amplification and the formation of multipolar mitotic spindles, which leads to tumor aneuploidy and so it has been found to play an important role in tumorigenicity in many cancers such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer and cervical cancer. Hence, the goal of this study is to identify the correlation of clinicopathlogical factors and overexpression of Aurora-2 kinase in oral squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the immunohistochemical staining of Aurora-2 kinase in 20 specimens of 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and the relationships between Aurora-2 kinase over expression and each of the clinico-pathological parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The results were as follows. 1. In the immunohistochemical study of poorly differentiated and invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma, the high level staining of Aurora-2 kinase was observed. 2. The correlation between immunohistochemical Aurora-2 kinase expression and histopathological differentiation of specimens was significant. These findings suggest that overexpression of Aurora-2 kinase may play a important role in carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.