Angiogenesis is a essential part for bone formation and bone fracture healing. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the most important molecules among many angiogenic factors, is a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is required for bone formation and repair. However, the effect of VEGF on osteoblastic cells during osteogenesis is still controversial. In recent days, substantial progress have been made toward developing tissue-engineered alternatives to autologous bone grafting for maxillofacial bony defects. Periosteum has received considerable interest as a better source of adult stem cells. Periosteum has the advantage of easy harvest and contains various cell types and progenitor cells that are able to differentiate into a several mesenchymal lineages, including bone. Several studies have reported the bone formation potential of periosteal cells, however, the correlation between VEGF signaling and cultured human periosteal cell-derived osteogenesis has not been fully investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between VEGF signaling and cultured human periosteal-derived cells osteogenesis. Periosteal tissues of 5 x 20 mm were obtained from mandible during surgical extraction of lower impacted third molar from 3 patients. Periostealderived cells were introduced into the cell culture and were subcultured once they reached confluence. After passage 3, the periosteal-derived cells were further cultured for 42 days in an osteogenic inductive culture medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and beta-glycerophosphate. We evaluated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the expression of Runx2 and VEGF, alizarin red S staining, and the quantification of osteocalcin and VEGF secretion in the periosteal-derived cells.