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J Korean Assoc Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jul;28(4):295-309. Korean. Original Article.
Yoon CJ , Ryu SY .
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the incidence, etiological factors, and management of cleft lip and palate. Two hundred and twenty patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate who were treated at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chonnam National University Hospital, during the period between January 1994 and December 2003 were reviewed. The ratios of cleft lip : cleft lip with cleft palate : and cleft palate were 0.4:1.1:1. Males were more common than females in cleft lip (1.3:1) and cleft lip and palate (2.5:1), while females were more common than males in cleft palate (1:1.3). In the cleft side, left clefts were more prevalent than right clefts (cleft lip 1.3:1, cleft lip and palate 1.6:1). Unilateral clefts were more common than bilateral clefts in cleft lip (79:21). Cleft lip and cleft palate were more common in those with blood type A (34.5%) than those with other types. There was no significant relationship between birth season and frequency of clefts. The clefts were common in the first-born (48.8%), and in mothers aged between 25 and 29 (51.7%). Medication (24.7%) and stress (16.7%) during the first trimester were noted. Positive familial history was noted in 13 cases (5.9%). Thirty-two cases (15%) were associated with other congenital anomalies, in which tonguetie (40.6%) and congenital heart disease (21.9%) were most common. Among 100 patients with cleft palate, 77 patients had middle ear disease (77%), which occurred predominently in the incomplete cleft palate. Seventy-six among the 77 patients received myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion, and the remaining one received antibiotic medication only. Cleft lips were treated primarily at 3 to 6 months, and cleft palates were at 1 to 2 years. Treatment regimens included modified Millard method mainly in the cleft lip, and Wardill V-Y, Dorrance method, and Furlow method in the cleft palate. The percentage of palatal lengthening as type of cleft palate was greater in the incomplete cleft palate group (11.2%) than in the complete cleft palate group (9.6%). The percentage of palatal lengthening as operating method was no difference between the Furlow method (10.9%) and the push back method (10.7%). As postoperative complications, hypertrophic scar was most frequent in the cleft lip, and oronasal fistula in the cleft palate. In summary, it was shown that medication and stress during the first trimester of pregnancy were frequently associated with cleft lip and cleft palate, adequate timing and selection of method of operation are important factors to obtain morphologically and functionally good results. Furthermore prevention and treatment of middle ear disease are important in cleft palate patients because of its high co-occurrence.

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