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J Korean Assoc Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 Nov;21(4):401-406. Korean. Case Report.
Kim JR , Byun JH .
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea.

Secondary deformities of the lip and nose in individuals with repaired unilateral and bilateral clefts may vary in severity, depending on the state of the original defect, the care taken in the initial surgical procedure, the pattern of the patient's facial growth, and the effectiveness of interceptive orthodontic technique. Because each patient has a unique combination of deformities, their surgical reconstruction usually requires the modification and combination of several surgical techniques. Residual lip deformities after primary repair may be esthetic or functional and include scars, skin shortage or excess(vertical and transverse), orbicularis oris muscle malposition or diastasis. The key to accurate repair of secondary cleft lip deformities is a precise diagnosis. This requires observation of the patient in animation and repose. The quality of the scar is not the only factor determining the overall appearance of the lip. Observing the patient in the animated position is critical to assess muscular function. Factors that require precise analysis include lip length, the appearance of the Cupid's bow and philtrum, and nasal symmetry. Only after this detailed analysis can a decision be made as to whether a major or minor deformity exists. We report successful cases using various techniques for the secondary lip deformities.

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