Measurement of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure is useful in decision making and prediction of outcomes in various cardiovascular diseases. Invasive cardiac catheterization has been the gold standard in LV filling pressure measurement, but carries the risk of complications and has a similar predictive value for clinical outcomes compared with non-invasive LV filling pressure estimation by echocardiography. A variety of echocardiographic measurement methods have been suggested to estimate LV filling pressure. The most frequently used method for this purpose is the ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e'), which has become central in the guidelines for diastolic evaluation. This review will discuss the use the E/e' ratio in prediction of LV filling pressure and its potential pitfalls.