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Chonnam Med J. 2018 Sep;54(3):135-142. English. Review. https://doi.org/10.4068/cmj.2018.54.3.135
Broussard L , Howland A , Ryu S , Song K , Norris D , Armstrong CA , Song PI .
Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA. peter.song@ucdenver.edu
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.
Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Abstract

Over recent years, several new molecular and immunogenic therapeutic approaches to melanoma treatment have been approved and implemented in clinical practice. Mechanisms of resistance to these new therapies have become a major problem. Mutation-specific pharmacotherapy can result in simultaneous emergence of resistant clones at many separate body sites despite an initially positive therapeutic response. Additionally, treatments aimed at inducing apoptosis are subject to resistance due to escape through other known mechanisms of regulated cell death (RCD). In this review, we discuss the complexity in pharmacological manipulation of melanoma with c-Kit, BRAF, MEK, and/or mTOR mutant cell lines. This study also addresses melanoma evasion of cell death through modalities of RCD such as apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. This study also examines new combination therapies which have been approved to target both cell cycle dysregulation and cell death pathways. Lastly, we recognize the importance of immunomodulation though manipulation of the body's natural killing mechanisms with CTLA4, PD1, and CSF1 inhibition. As we begin to recognize tumor cell activation of alternate pathways, evasion of programmed cell death, and manipulation of the tumor microenvironment, it is increasingly important to grasp the complexity of personalized therapy in melanoma treatment.

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