Chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Identifying and treating risk factors for early chronic kidney disease may be the best approach to prevent and delay the adverse outcomes. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose level, and it is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined relationship between chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 124 patients who had admitted Chonnam National University Hospital from 2005 to 2006. Patients 20 years of age or older were studied in the chronic kidney disease defined by K/DOQI guidelines analyses. We examined lipid profile, abdominal circumference, height, weight, blood pressure and fasting glucose level. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of chronic kidney disease in patients with the metabolic syndrome compared with patients without the metabolic syndrome was 3.402 (95% CI, 1.086 to 10.663, p<0.05). Reduced serum HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) or elevated serum triglyceride level (p<0.01) relates to an increased risk for chronic kidney disease. In addition, there is a positive correlation between the number of metabolic syndrome components and risks for chronic kidney disease (p<0.001). These findings suggest that the metabolic syndrome might be an important risk factor in the chronic kidney disease. In addition, there is a positive correlation between the number of metabolic syndrome components and risks for chronic kidney disease. These findings might support the studies to test the effect of preventing and treating the metabolic syndrome on the risk for chronic kidney disease.