PURPOSE: In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is known as an immune modulator. Recently, there has been increased worldwide interest in the association between low levels of vitamin D and allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and allergic/vasomotor rhinitis (AR/VR) in children. METHODS: This study included 164 patients. The sample included 59 patients with AR, 42 patients with VR, and 63 controls. Their ages ranged from 0 to 16 years. We examined the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Immunoglobulin E, specific IgE, and eosinophil cationic protein; peripheral blood eosinophil count; and the results of a skin prick test. RESULTS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 19.0+/-8.5 ng/mL in the AR group, 25.5+/-10.9 ng/mL in the VR group, and 26.9+/-10.7 ng/mL in the control group. After adjustment for body mass index and season at the time of blood sampling, vitamin D levels in the AR group were lower than those of the VR group (P=0.003) and control group (P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were inversely correlated with Immunoglobulin E levels (r=-0.317, P<0.001). AR patients with food allergy or atopic dermatitis did not have lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D than AR patients without these diseases. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a possible relationship between vitamin D levels and allergic rhinitis in Korean children.