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Korean J Pediatr. 2014 Dec;57(12):538-541. English. Case Report.
Kwak BO , Lee MJ , Park HW , Song MK , Chung S , Kim KS .
Department of Pediatrics, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Varicella is usually considered to be a benign disease in healthy children; however, serious complications can occur such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. We describe a 38-month-old girl with necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following varicella. She was previously healthy and vaccinated against varicella at 12 months of age. She had been diagnosed with varicella three days prior to presenting at our facility; she developed fever, vomiting, and painful swelling on her left flank. Her skin lesions worsened, she became lethargic, and had episodes of hypotension and coagulopathy. Necrotizing fasciitis on the left abdominal wall, buttocks, and left thigh was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, and group A Streptococcus was isolated from a tissue culture. She was diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and successfully treated with repeated surgical debridement and fasciotomy, in addition to intensive antibiotics. Our experience suggests that necrotizing fasciitis in patients with varicella should be considered to be a rare complication even with widespread vaccine use. Early diagnosis and intensive treatment are required to prevent a fatal outcome.

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