PURPOSE: Enteroviruses (EVs) are commonly known to cause infection, especially in infants and children. This report presents an overview of enterovirus epidemiology in central Korea. METHODS: From the spring of 2005 to the autumn of 2006, we collected the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and stool samples from the pediatric patients with a febrile illness or suspected meningitis who were admitted to hospitals in central Korea. In order to test for EVs, cell lines were derived from pretreated susceptible specimen, and the cytopathic effects were observed. Seminested real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing were performed for genotypic and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: Of the 305 patients examined, 51 (16.7%) tested positive for EV. Of these 51 patients, 44 showed the following serotypes: Echovirus (ECV) 18 (18 cases, 35.2%), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) 5 (13 cases, 25.4%), ECV25 (5 cases, 9.8%), ECV9 (4 cases, 7.8%), ECV5 (3 cases, 5.8%), and EV74 (1 case, 1.9%). In 2005, between June and August, ECV18 and CVB5 were mostly responsible for the enteroviral infections among the patients in central Korea. In 2006, between July and August, ECV25 was mostly the cause of enteroviral infection. Conclusions: There is a need for continuous surveillance of enteroviral infection and its clinical manifestations, particularly for EV74, which was first identified in Korea.