Purpose: Several cytokines play important roles in the inflammatory process of Henoch-Scholein Purpura (HSP). It is likely that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is involved in the pathogenesis of HSP. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether TGF-beta promoter polymorphism is associated with the renal involvement of childhood HSP. Methods: Thirty-four patients younger than 15 years, who had been diagnosed with HSP, as well as 27 controls, were examined. Patients and controls were genotyped for TGF-beta C-509T by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: The T allelic frequencies in patients and controls showed no difference (45% vs. 48.8%). No allele or genotype differences between the group of HSP group and control group were observed. The frequencies of TGF-beta 509 genotypes TT, TC, and CC were no different between patients and controls (26% vs. 22%). The TT genotype of polymorphism of the TGF-beta C-509T gene had no relation to the susceptibility of children to HSP and renal involvement in HSP. Conclusion: TGF-beta T allele may not be related to the susceptibility of children to HSP. The TT genotype of polymorphism of the TGF-beta C 509T gene does not appear to have an influence on renal involvement in childhood HSP.