Aminoglycosides are frequently used antibiotics in children. The multiple daily dosing (MDD) in infants and children is twice or three times daily depending on age. Recent studies in adults have shown that once daily dosing (ODD) maximizes the bactericidal activity and might minimize the toxicity of antibiotics. So, I reviewed many studies about efficacy, toxicity and cost effectiveness of ODD of aminoglycosides in children. Most studies suggest that ODD compared with MDD of aminoglycosides is theoretically more efficacious and has no higher toxicity in infants and children. But, the total number of patients included in the studies is not large. Multi-center, controlled prospective studies are required in larger numbers of infants and children to determine the efficacy and safety of the ODD regimen in children before ODD of aminoglycosides can be recommended for routine use.