PURPOSE: With a duration of action of approximately 24 hours and peakless levels, Lantus is a more physiologic basal insulin analogue compared with NPH. The aim of this study was to compare the glycemic control of Lantus plus Humalog with that of premixed insulin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 25 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, aged 12-19 years, who changed their insulin regimen from premixed insulin to Lantus plus Humalog. Daily insulin doses, frequency of hypoglycemia, fasting blood glucose, C-peptide concentration and HbA1c before and 6 months after Lantus treatment were compared. 24 hour blood glucose of 11 patients among Lantus treatment group (n=25) and premixed insulin treatment group (n=10) were self-monitored and compared. RESULTS: 6 months after Lantus treatment, the episodes of hypoglycemia were reduced by 50%(15.1 vs. 7.6 events/month), especially nocturnal hypoglycemia by 67%(6.7 vs. 2.5 events/month). HbA1c was reduced from 9.3% to 8.7% after Lantus treatment. Self-monitored blood glucose of Lantus treatment group at postbreakfast 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes were 171.1, 169.5, 171.0 and 154.1 mg/dL respectively and lower than those of premixed insulin treatment group (259.7, 282.7, 280.0 and 250.9 mg/dL respectively). CONCLUSION: Compared with premixed insulin, Lantus plus Humalog is more effective in glycemic control and reduction in nocturnal hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.