PURPOSE: Recently, there has been several studies to clarify the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD) and the relations of VEGF and endostatin that act on vascular endothelial cells to the coronary artery complications. In this report, we measured serum levels of VEGF and endostatin in acute and subacute phases of KD to assess the change of these levels and the relations to the development of coronary artery lesions (CAL). METHODS: Twenty six patients were diagnosed and treated for KD between January, 2001 and July, 2005 at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea. They were divided into those with and without CAL. Serum levels of VEGF and endostatin were measured during acute and subacute phases and compared to those measured in healthy and disease control groups. RESULTS: Serum levels of VEGF were increased in KD but no differences were noted in KD with and without CAL. Serum levels of endostatin were decreased in the acute phase of KD, however they were recovered in the subacute phase of KD, regardless of CAL. The VEGF/endostatin ratio was increased in KD. KD without CAL showed a relative decrease in this ratio during the subacute phase. Significant positive correlations were found between serum VEGF and WBC count, VEGF and ESR, VEGF/endostatin ratio and ESR in the acute phase of KD. CONCLUSION: Analysis of factors influencing the vascular endothelium such as VEGF and endostatin will help to clarify the etiology of KD and the pathogenesis of CAL.