PURPOSE: 'Programming' describes the process that stimulus at a critical period of development has lifelong effects. The fact that low birth weight links to the risk of elevated blood pressures in adult life is well known. This study aims to examine whether this link is evident in the newborn by investigating the relationship of the intrauterine growth indices and neonatal blood pressure(BP). METHODS: We studied 127 neonates who were born at Ewha Womans' Hospital and their mothers enrolled our cohort study during pregnancy. Data on the mothers and details of the birth records were tracked and collected from medical charts. Neonatal BP was measured within 24 hours after birth. RESULTS: Neonatal SBP was positively correlated to intrauterine growth indices; birth weight(BW)(r= 0.4), head circumference(HC)(r=0.4), and birth height(r=0.3). However, an inverse relationship existed, between HC/BW ratio and neonatal SBP(r=-0.4). After adjusting for the baby's sex, maternal BP, and gestational age, neonatal SBP still associated with intrauterine growth indices. SBP was 7 mmHg higher in the highest BW group(> or =90 percentiles) compared to the lowest group(<10 percentiles). On the other hand, SBP was 17 mmHg lower in the highest HC/BW group(> or =90 percentiles) compared in the lowest group(<10 percentiles). CONCLUSION: This study could not find the evidence that intrauterine growth retardation affect on elevated neonatal BP. It suggests that the initiating events of BP programming may occur during postnatal growth period. To identify the critical starting period that intrauterine growth retardation leads to elevated BP, a study tracking BP changes from birth to childhood is required.