PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the types of lymphadenitis after BCG vaccination and the effect of local rifampicin instillation on the treatment of suppurative BCG lymphadenitis. METHODS: A total of 32 otherwise healthy infants with suppurative BCG lymphadenitis, who visited the Department of Pediatrics of Chonbuk National University Hospital, from March 2002 through June 2004, were enrolled in this study. They were treated with needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation. We investigated the time the lymphadenitis took to be suppurative, accompanying clinical manifestations, and the treatment effects. RESULTS: Of the 32 infants, 19 were male and 13 were female. They were full term babies and one preterm baby with a gestational age of 30 weeks. They received intradermal administration, with the BCG vaccine of Pasteur(R)(French) strain mostly on the left deltoid area(96.9 percent). Regional lymphadenitis occurred in 1 to 11 months after BCG vaccination, mostly 1-5 months after vaccination (78.1 percent). Among the infants, 87.5 percent had unilocular lesion but 12.5 percent had more than one enlarged lymph node cares. Most of the lymphadenitis presented in the left axillary area(77.8 percent), and the left supuraclavicular area(11.1 percent). After one to three times of needle aspiration with rifampin instillation, all infants recovered completely without surgical excision or severe complication. CONCLUSION: The regional lymphadenitis is the most common complication in infants who receive intradermal BCG vaccination. This study supports that in suppurative BCG lymphadenitis the needle aspiration and local rifampicin instillation is very effective and can be a more economical treatment modality.