PURPOSE: Because of the unavailability of marrow transplantation, umbilical cord blood (CB) is increasingly being used. We evaluated the potential of ex vivo expansion and clonality in CD34+ cells separated from cord blood source and mobilized peripheral blood (PB) in a serum-free media. METHODS: The CD34+ cells, selected from CB and mobilized PB, were expanded with hematopoietic growth factors. They were then cultured for burst-forming units of erythrocytes (BFU-E), colony-forming units of granulocytes and monocytes (CFU-GM) and colony-forming units of megakaryocytes (CFU-Mk) at culture days 0, day 4, day 7, and day 14 with various growth factors. RESULTS: The CB-selected CD34+ cells showed significantly higher total cell expansion than those from the PB at day 7 (2 fold increase than PB). The CB-selected CD34+ cells produced more BFU-E colonies than did the PB on culture at days 7 and at day 14. Also, the CB-selected CD34+ cells produced more CFU-Mk colonies than did the PB on culture at day 4 and at day 7. CONCLUSION: The ex vivo expansion of the CB cells may be promising in producing total cellular expansion, CFU-Mk and BFU-E compared with PB for 7 to 14 days. The growth factors combination including megakaryocyte growth and development, flt3-ligand and interleukin-3 showed more expansion in the view of total cells and clonal maintenance compared with less combination.