Repair mechanisms in the postnatal and mature central nervous system (CNS) have long been thought to be very limited. However recent works have shown that the mature CSN contains neural progenitors, precursors, and stem cells that are capable of generating new neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes especially in germinative areas such as the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibilities for the development of novel neural repair strategies via mobilization and replacement for dying neurons of neural stem cells in situ. Indeed recent reports have provided evidences that endogenous stem cells are activated in response to various injuries, and in some injury models, limited neuronal replacement occurs in the CNS. Here, current understandings for endogenous neurogenesis and induction neurogeneis in postnatal CNS including neonatal brain are summarized and discussed.