PURPOSE: Reports of neurologic abnormalities associated with acute diarrhea are increasing recently. It was reported that the incidence of the neurologic abnormalities related to gastroenteritis was higher in rotavirus gastroenteritis than in non-rotavirus gastroenteritis. We investigated the incidence, the manifestations and the prognosis of the neurologic abnormalities associated with rotavirus diarrhea and non-rotavirus diarrhea in Korean children. METHODS: Six hundred forty-nine children who showed acute diarrhea and whose stools were examined for rotavirus were enrolled and categorized into the rotavirus positive group(n=186) and the negative group(n=463). The medical records were reviewed retrospectively for neurologic manifestations, diagnoses and the status of follow-up. RESULTS:The incidence of neurologic abnormalities in all children with diarrhea was 9.4%. Neurologic abnormalities associated with diarrhea were more common in the rotavirus positive group than in the rotavirus negative group(16.1% vs 6.7%, P=0.0002). The neurologic diagnoses of the children ranged from simple febrile convulsion to encephalitis. The rate of patients presenting neurologic abnormalities other than seizures was relatively higher in the rotavirus positive group than in the rotavirus negative group(56.7% vs 25.8%, P=0.01). All children with neurologic abnormalities showed complete recovery. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neurologic abnormalities among patients with diarrhea was about 9%. The neurologic diagnoses in patients who showed neurologic abnormalities were diversed. In rotavirus gastroenterits, the rate of patients presenting neurologic abnormalities other than seizure was higher than in non-rotavirus gastroenteritis. The outcome of the children who showed neurologic abnormalities with diarrhea was excellent.