BACKGROUND: There have been no studies of airway management strategies for difficult intubation and cannot intubate, cannot ventilate (CICV) situations in Korea. This study was intended to survey devices or methods that Korean anesthesiologists and intensivists prefer in difficult intubation and CICV situations. METHODS: A face-to-face questionnaire that consisted of a doctor's preference, experience and comfort level for alternative airway management devices was presented to anesthesiologists and intensivists at study meetings and conferences from October 2014 to December 2014. RESULTS: We received 218 completed questionnaires. In regards to difficult intubation, the order of preferred alternative airway devices was a videolaryngoscope (51.8%), an optical stylet (22.9%), an intubating laryngeal mask airway (11.5%), and a fiber-optic bronchoscope (10.6%). One hundred forty-two (65.1%) respondents had encountered CICV situations, and most of the cases were identified during elective surgery. In CICV situations, the order of preferred methods of infraglottic airway management was cricothyroidotomy (CT) by intravenous (IV) catheter (57.3%), tracheostomy by a surgeon (18.8%), wire-guided CT (18.8%), CT using a bougie (2.8%), and open surgery CT using a scalpel (2.3%). Ninety-eight (45%) of the 218 respondents were familiar with the American Society of Anesthesiologists' difficult airway algorithm or Difficult Airway Society algorithm, and only 43 (19.7%) had participated in airway workshops within the past five years. CONCLUSION: The videolaryngoscope was the most preferred device for difficult airways. In CICV situations, the method of CT via an IV catheter was the most frequently used, followed by wire-guided CT method and tracheostomy by the attending surgeon.