Vitamin D deficiency has been common health problem in many countries and it is now known that vitamin D plays a role in many organs and tissues throughout the body as well as bone and calcium metabolism. It is also reported that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and neonates is prevalent in various populations. Low maternal levels of vitamin D correlate with poor pregnancy outcomes such as gestational diabetes, preterm delivery and increase in caesarian section. In neonate and infants, vitamin D deficiency may result in lower birth weight, small for gestational infants, neonatal seizure and cardiomyopathy. In this article, author reviews multiple roles of vitamin D, adverse effect of vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy and neonatal health and recommendations of vitamin D intake.