OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spondyloarthropathy and peripheral neuropathy in spinal pain patient undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure. METHOD: Subjects were 60 patients complaining posterior neck or back pain, undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. They were divided into two groups according to the radiologic findings: spondyloarthropathy group (SAG, n=28) and no-spondyloarthropathy group (NSAG, n=32). Nerve conduction studies of extremities, simple spinal radiologic examination and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine were taken. RESULTS: Electrodiagnostic study revealed 26 patients (43%) had carpal tunnel syndrome, 32 (53%) had ulnar neuropathy, and 32 (53%) had peripheral polyneuropathy. Carpal tunnel syndrome was more frequent in SAG, but other neuropathic fingings, bone mineral density and duration of hemodialysis were not different between two groups. CONCLUSION: Nerve conduction study could be useful to screen the peripheral neuropathy in patients undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure. If they complained spinal pain, and diagnosed as spondyloarthropathy by radiologic examination, we might need to do electrodiagnostic study for early detection and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.